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The International Organization for Standardization, or ISO ([ the claim is made], on [ the introductory page about ISO] on [ the ISO Web site], that "ISO" is not an acronym, but comes from the Greek word isos, meaning "equal"), is "a network of the national standards institutes of 146 countries, on the basis of one member per country".

They are responsible for developing and publishing standards for international use, on topics ranging from "Small craft -- Toilet waste retention systems" ([ ISO 8099:2000]) to "Tea -- Preparation of liquor for use in sensory tests" [ ISO 3103:1980]) to "Electric road vehicles -- Reference energy consumption and range -- Test procedures for passenger cars and light commercial vehicles ([ ISO 8714:2002]) to "Paints and varnishes -- Determination of specular gloss of non-metallic paint films at 20 degrees, 60 degrees and 85 degrees" ([ ISO 2813:1994]) to "Quality management -- Customer satisfaction -- Guidelines for complaints handling in organizations" ([ ISO 10002:2004])... "Information technology -- Open Systems Interconnection -- Protocol for providing the connection-mode transport service" ([ ISO/IEC 8073:1997]), which is the specification for the Open Systems Interconnection, or "OSI", connection-oriented transport protocol.

The term "ISO", when used in a networking context, often refers to the OSI protocol suite - see IsoProtocolFamily.