Juniper Networks mirror encapsulation (jmirror)
Juniper E Series routers have the ability to perform packet mirroring. Packet mirroring enables you to automatically send a copy of a packet to an external host for analysis. Packet mirroring has many uses including lawful intercept, traffic debugging and troubleshooting user networking problems.
The E Series JUNOSe software provides two methods that you can use to configure and manage your packet-mirroring environment — CLI-based and RADIUS-based.
- CLI-based packet mirroring — An authorized operator uses the router’s CLI commands to configure and manage packet mirroring. You can mirror traffic related to a specific IP, IPv6, or L2TP interface or traffic related to a particular user. You also use CLI commands to create secure policies that identify the traffic to be mirrored and specify how the mirrored traffic is treated.
- RADIUS-based packet mirroring — A RADIUS administrator uses RADIUS attributes to configure packet mirroring of a particular user’s traffic. The router creates dynamic secure policies for the mirroring operation.
When a packet is mirrored an exact duplicate of the packet is created. In order to prevent this duplicate packet from reaching the original destination it is often necessary to wrap the mirrored packet with a new, routable IP packet header. As a result Juniper Networks defined a proprietary UDP packet header format which allows you to redirect the mirrored packet to the intended packet mirror destination. For lawful intercept applications this is commonly the mediation device IP and UDP port. There is a special logical interface on the E Series router called an analyzer port where the router directs mirrored packets that only allows outgoing packets — all incoming traffic is silently ignored.
During a packet mirroring session, the router prepends a special UDP/IP header to each mirrored packet that is sent to the analyzer interface. This prepended header is created by the policy-mirroring action, and is used for demultiplexing at the analyzer to sort through the multiple mirrored streams that arrive from different sources.
All mirrored L2TP session packets are prepended with a UDP/IP header. However, for IP traffic mirroring, the prepend header is optional; the header is added if the mirroring-related Juniper Networks VSAs (VSAs 26-59 and 26-61) are both included in the RADIUS message. For CLI-based mirroring, the analyzer-udp-port keyword of the mirror analyzer-ip-address command creates the same information contained in the two VSAs. If you do not include the VSAs or the analyzer-udp-port keyword, an IP mirroring action is indicated, and the prepend header is not used.
The primary driver for the development of the packet mirroring technology in the industry was the anticipation of an FCC order to comply with CALEA http://www.fcc.gov/pshs/services/calea/ law enforcement regulations. The FCC issued their first order in August 2005 and mandated that CALEA compliance was to be in place with 18 months of the order. This order was motivated by the need to intercept VoIP communications across data networks. The FCC issued their second order in May 2006 which included VoIP as well as broadband subscribers applications, but the deadline was not extended.
The deadline for compliance was set at May 14, 2007. The ruling was such that governments could impose daily fines designed to block services which were not Lawful Intercept compliant.
In anticipation of this ruling, work began well in advance of the first FCC order to develop technology within E Series to meet the expected reqirements. The ability to perform packet mirroring on an E Series router was introduced in JUNOSe 5.1 in March of 2004. In this initial release mirroring was entirely CLI based and the mirror commands were visible to anyone with access to the router. Only IP packets could be mirrored and there was no support for the prepended UDP header.
Support for secure policies came in JUNOSe 6.0 in January of 2005. Secure policies hid the mirror commands from view unless you had command authorization to view them. In this release support was extended to L2TP packets and the prepended UDP header was introduced. Initially the only way to add the UDP header to a mirrored packet was through the Juniper Networks VSAs returned via the RADIUS Accept — or contained within a RADIUS CoA messages along with the IETF VSA  Acct-Session-Id.
In JUNOSe 7.0 (released in July 2005), support for prepending the UDP header to a mirrored packet was extended to CLI based mirroring.
UDP: jmirror is transported over UDP. No specific port number is used nor assigned.
XXX - Add example decoded traffic for this protocol here (as plain text or Wireshark screenshot).
The PROTO dissector is (fully functional, partially functional, not existing, ... whatever the current state is). Also add info of additional Wireshark features where appropriate, like special statistics of this protocol.
The jmirror dissector has a UDP port number preference to tell it which on which UDP port to listen for jmirror packets.
Example capture file
XXX - Add a simple example capture file to the SampleCaptures page and link from here (see below). Keep this file short, it's also a good idea to gzip it to make it even smaller, as Wireshark can open gzipped files automatically.
A complete list of jmirror display filter fields can be found in the display filter reference
Show only the PROTO based traffic:
You cannot directly filter jmirror protocols while capturing. However, if you know the UDP port used (see above), you can filter on that one.
Capture only the mirror traffic over port (30030):
udp port 30030
- add link to PROTO specification and where to find additional info on the web about it, e.g.:
jmirror header - format of jmirror packets